|Browse Archives||About the Journal||For Contributors||NURIMEDIA||Submission|
You are not permitted to access the full text of articles.
If you have any questions about permissions,
please contact the Society.
회원님은 논문 이용 권한이 없습니다.
권한 관련 문의는 학회로 부탁 드립니다.
|[ Article ]|
|International Journal of Martial Arts - Vol. 8, No. 0, pp. 80-92|
|ISSN: 2287-8599 (Online)|
|Print publication date 28 Feb 2023|
|Risk compensation behaviour is present in Historical European Martial Arts and can oppose a risk for the effectiveness of preventive measures|
|Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Martial Arts Research and Studie, Beigemsesteenweg 304,1852, Beigem|
|Correspondence to : Seanwauters@gmail.com; +32 496 840 715|
Background: Prevention is the first line of defence in sport related injuries. To minimalize the chances of injuries, sports use preventive measures such as rules, settings and protective equipment. Risk compensation behaviour is the combination and compilation of behaviours that are the result adapted behaviour by wearing protective equipment or other preventive measures. Aim: The aim if this study is to investigate whether risk compensation behaviour is triggered by wearing more protective equipment in Historical European Martial Arts. Material and methods: 30 fencers (15 duos) competed in 2 combat settings one while wearing a full set of protective equipment, the other while wearing minimal protective equipment. The fencers fought 2 rounds against an age and experienced matched partner in both of the settings. After the fencing bout a series of questionnaires was conducted in order to map risk compensation behaviour. Conclusion: Risk compensation behaviour is present in Historical European Martial Arts and developers of protective equipment and tournament managers should take it into account in the development of protective measures.
|Keywords: Historical fencing, Historical European Martial Arts, Risk compensation behaviour, injury prevention
Many thanks to Robert Daniel Brooks, Bert Gevaert, Janik Puttemans, L.C., V.L.W, and V.P.W. for their support and help on this work.
The pictures were taken at official Netherland and Belgian tournaments and by tournament organizations. The people in the picture gave their consent to these organization to be photographed, and organizations gave their consent to use the photos. Faces were blurred for privacy reasons.
This work was done in collaboration with Martial Arts Research and Studies. There was no funding for this project.
|1.||Critchley, G.R., Mannion, S. & Meredith, C.(1999). Injury rates in Shotokan karate. BrJ Sports Med;33:174–177.
|2.||Fehili, B & Fitzgerald, M. (2017). Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Potential Mechanisms of Damage, Cell Transplantation. 26(7) 1131-1155.
|3.||Fife, G.P., O'Sullivan, D., Pieter, W., Cook, D.P. & Kaminski, T.W. (2012). Effects of Olympic-style taekwondo kicks on an instrumented head-form and resultant injury measures. Br J Sports Med 2013;47:1161– 1165.
|4.||Finch, C. (2006). A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport:9, 3—9.
|5.||González-Gross, M. & Melendez, A. (2013). Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: impact on health and obesity prevention. Nutr Hosp;28(5):89-98.|
|6.||Gupta, S. (2011). The Attenuation of Strike Acceleration with the Use of Safety Equipment in Tae Kwon Do. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 2 (4): 235-240.
|7.||Jaquet D. (2015). Fighting in the Fightschools late XVth, early XVIth century. Acta Periodica Duellatorum 47- 67.
|8.||Jaquet, D. & Walczak, B. (2015) Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings. Acta Periodica Duellatorum; 105-148.
|9.||Jaquet, D., Sorenson, C.F. & Cognot, F. (2015). Historical European Martial Art. A crossroad between academic research, martial heritage re-creation and martial sport practices. Acta Periodica Duellatorum, vol. 3, p. 5-35.
|10.||Kleisiaris, Ch.F., Sfakianakis, Ch. & Papathanasiou, I.V. (2014). Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic idea. J Med Ethics Hist Med, 2014, 7:6.|
|11.||Lystad, R.P. (2015). Epidemiology of injuries in full-contact combat sports. Australasian Epidemiologist August, 22(1), 14-18.|
|12.||Lystad, R.P., Alevras, A., Rudy, I., Soligrad, T., Engebretsen, L. (2021). Injury incidence, severity and profile in Olympic combat sports: a comparative analysis of 7712 athlete exposures from three consecutive Olympic Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2021;55:1077-1083.
|13.||Martinez-Perez, R., Paredes, I., Munarriz, P.M., Paredes, B.& Alen, J.F. (2017). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: The unknown disease. Neurologia, 32(3):185-191.
|14.||McBain, K., Shrier, I., Shultz, R., Meeuwisse, W.H., Klügl, M., Garza,D. & Matheson, G.O. (2011a). Prevention of sports injury I: a systematic review of applied biomechanics and physiology outcomes research. Br J Sports Med. 46:169–173.
|15.||McBain, K., Shrier, I., Shultz, R., Meeuwisse, W.H., Klügl, M., Garza,D. & Matheson, G.O. (2011b). Prevention of sport injury II: a systematic review of clinical science research. Br J Sports Med.
|16.||McIntosh, A. (2005). Risk compensation, motivation, injuries, and biomechanics in competitive sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(1):2-3.
|17.||McIntosh, A., Caponecchia, C. & Usman, J. (2011). Tackling risk compensation - a psycho-physical approach to measuring behaviour change. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(4):362.
|18.||Murgu, A-I. Fencing (2006) Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am, 17, 725–736.
|19.||Musumeci, G., Ravalli, S., Amorini, A.M., & Lazzarino, G. (2019). Concussion in sports, J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4, 37;.
|20.||O'Sullivan, D.M., Fife, G.P., Pieter, W. & Shin, I. (2013) Safety performance evaluation of taekwondo headgear. Br J Sports Med; 47:447–451.
|21.||Schultzel, M., Schultzel, M., Wentz, B., & Bernhardt, M. (2016). The prevalence of Injury in Kendo. Phys sports med. 44(1), 29-33.
|22.||Verhagen, E., van Stralen, M. & van Mechelen, W. (2010). Behaviour, the Key Factor for Sports Injury Prevention. Sports Med; 40 (11), 899-906.
|23.||Wauters, S. (2023a). Historical European Martial Art in the spectrum of martial arts. Part 1: What are Historical European Martial Arts and Historical Fencing and how do they fit in the spectrum of Martial Arts. International Journal of Martial Arts. In Submission.|
|24.||Wauters, S. (2023b). Historical European Martial Art in the spectrum of martial arts. Part 2: The use of the buckler in different fencing treatises in the Middle Ages and the early period of early modern Europe: a scoping review of literature. International Journal of Martial Arts. In Submission.|
|25.||Wauters, S. & ter Mors, O. (2023). Historical European Martial Art in the spectrum of martial arts. Part 3: Im Schwert, Im Messer. A comparison between the arming sword, the Messer and the falchion A scoping review. . International Journal of Martial Arts. In Submission.|
|26.||Weimann, W. (1997). Lexicon of martial arts. Berlin, Germany: Weimann Verlag.|
|27.||Windt, J. & Gabbet, T.J. (2017). How do training and competition workloads relate to injury? The workload— injury aetiology mode. Br J Sports Med;51:428–435.
|28.||Ziaee, V., Shobbar, M., Lotfian, S., Ahmadinejad, M. (2015). Sport Injuries of Karate During Training: An Epidemiologic Study in Iran,Asian J Sports Med. 2015 June; 6(2): e26832.
The International Journal of Martial Arts
#409-1 Department of Physical Education, 1732 Deokyoung-daero. Giheung-gu. Yongin-si. Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Posial Code: 17104
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright@2013 International Society of Martial Arts. All rights reserved.