Current Issue

International Journal of Martial Arts - Vol. 7

[ Article ]
International Journal of Martial Arts - Vol. 7, pp.20-35
Abbreviation: injoma
ISSN: 2287-8599 (Online)
Online publication date 25 Mar 2021
Received 08 Sep 2020 Accepted 20 Feb 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51222/injoma.2021.03.7.20

Contribution of Nage-waza actions to the Olympic performance: an observational 2004-2016 medalists’ study
Amar AIT ALI YAHIAa
aNational Institute of Higher Education in Science and Technology of Sports Abdellah FADHEL, Algiers, Algeria (ar.aay@hotmail.fr)


Abstract
Background

Winning an Olympic medal is a sporting accomplishment that rewards well-prepared judokas. Despite many studies devoted to understanding his performance, the elite judoka remained an attractive object of investigation. The study aimed to define the technical and tactical profile of the Olympic medalists.

Methods and material

The observation of 575 matches determined 6,750 Nage-waza actions performed by 112 male medalists and their opponents in four consecutive Olympic Games (2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016). Anderson-Darling assessed the normal distribution of the data; one-way ANOVA used for inter and intra-Olympic comparisons, followed by the Post hoc Tukey test. Unbiased estimator ω2 tested the effect size of the analysis of variance.

Results

Medalists performed 6.4±2.4 attacks/match; opponents carried out 5.3±2.2 attacks/match. They have registered offensive effectiveness of 15.7±9.9% and defensive effectiveness of 95.7±4.2%. To achieve this performance, medalists executed 1.7±.6 attacks/min and their opponents’ 1.4±.5 attack/min. Their technical repertoire of 10.8±3.9 techniques has shown the technical requirements at these Olympic competitions. Ashi-waza was the most preferred, but Te-waza was the most effective.

Conclusion

These findings improve knowledge of the technical and tactical profile of Olympic medalists. Coaches could use them as references in judoka preparedness for future competitions.


Keywords: judo, technique, tactic, competition, high-level

Acknowledgments

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.


References
1. Adam, M., Klimowicz, P., & Pujszo, R. (2016). Judoists’ tactical and technical efficiency during the World Championships in 2014 and 2015. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 8(2), 19-28.
2. Adam, M., Tyszkowski, S., & Smaruj, M. (2011b). The contest effectiveness of the men’s national judo team of Japan, and character of their technical-tactical preparation during the World Judo Championships 2010. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 3(1), 65-74.
3. Adam, M., & Smaruj, M. (2013). The indices of technical-tactical preparation of the World’s Judo Champions in Tokyo 2010 as an assessment criterion for individual training. Archives of Budo, 9, 33-39.
4. Adam, M., Smaruj, M., & Laskowski, R. (2014). A technical and tactical profile of the Double Olympic Judo Champion:A Case Study. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(1), 123-138.
5. Adam, M., Smaruj, M., & Tyszkowski, S. (2011a). The diagnosis of the technical-tactical preparation of judo competitors during the World Championships (2009 and 2010) in the light of the new judo sport rules. Archives of Budo, 7(1), 5-9.
6. Adam, M., Tabakov, S., Klimowicz, P., Paczoska, B., Laskowski, R., & Smaruj, M. (2012). The efficiency of judo techniques in the light of amendments to the rules of a sports contest. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 3(2), 115-120.
7. Adam, M., Tabakov, S., Blach, L., & Smaruj, M. (2013). Characteristics of the technical-tactical preparation of male and female judo competitors participating in the Olympic Games-London 2012. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 13(2), 75-88.
8. Ait Ali Yahia, A. (2014). A technical and tactical profile of the judokas medallists. Case of the category (-81 kg). Sciences et Pratiques des Activités Physiques Sportives et Artistiques, 1(5), 19-29.
9. Ait Ali Yahia, A. (2015). The athletic performance of judo combat at the Olympic Games as a frame of reference for the know-how and decisional knowledge of high-level judokas (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Algiers 3, Algiers.
10. Ait Ali Yahia, A. (2019, October). The analysis of offensive activity of the judokas médalists at the 2004-2016 Olympic Games. ACAPS, 18th International Congres. Paris, France.
11. Ait Ali Yahia, A. (2020). The impact of classified and unclassified techniques on the male medalists' offensive activity at the 2004-2016 Olympic Games. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 12(4), 59-73.
12. Ait Ali Yahia, A., & Calmet, M. (2019). The contribution of unclassified techniques to the offensive activity of judokas medalists in the category (-60 kg) at the 2004-2012. eJRIEPS (44), 4-25.
13. Bocioaca, L. (2014). Technical and tactical optimization factors in judo. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 117, 389-394.
14. Boguszewski, D. (2016). Analysis of the final fights of the judo tournament at Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 7(2), 67-72.
15. Boguszewski, D. (2006). Fight Dynamics of the Double Olympic Champion in Judo (1988, 1992). Journal of Human Kinetics, 16, 97-106.
16. Boguszewski, D. (2010). Technical fitness training of judokas-finalists of top world tournaments in the years 2005-2008. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 1(2), 109-114.
17. Boguszewski, D. (2011a). Defensive actions of world top judoists. Journal of Human Kinetics, 27, 111-122.
18. Boguszewski, D. (2011b). Relationships between the rules and the way of struggle applied by top world male judoists. Archives of Budo, 7(1), 27-32.
19. Boguszewski, D. (2014). Offensive activity as an element of the evaluation of struggle dynamics of judo contestants. Archives of Budo, 10, 101-106.
20. Boguszewski, D., & Boguszewska, K. (2006). Dynamics of judo contests performed by finalists of European Championships (Rotterdam 2005). Archives of Budo, 2, 40-44.
21. Boscolo Del Vecchio, F., Franchini, E., Bispo de Souza, C., & Teixeira, S. (2003). Analysis of the fight time of the finalists of the 2003 World judo championship. Faculty of Physical Education of Unicamp.
22. Courel, J., Franchini, E., Femia, P., Stankovic, N., & Escobar-Molina, R. (2014). Effects of kumi-kata grip laterality and throwing side on attack effectiveness. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(1), 138-147.
23. Crowther, N. (2004). The state of the modern Olympics: citius, altius, fortius? European Review, 12(3), 445-460.
24. Ceylan, B., Ozturk, F., & Balci, S. (2020). Effect of different stages on match outcomes during high level judo competitions. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 15(1), 14-21.
25. Daigo, T. (2005). Kodokan judo : Throwing techniques. Tokyo: Kodansha International.
26. Dopico, X., Iglesias-Soler, E., & Carballeira, E. (2014). Classification of judo motor skills: tactical and motor criteria approach. Archives of Budo science of martial arts and extreme sports , 10, 75-83.
27. Escobar-Molina, R., Courel, J., Franchini, E., Femia, P., & Stankovic, N. (2014). The impact of penalties on subsequent attack effectiveness and combat outcome among high elite judo competitors. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(3), 946-954.
28. European Judo Union. (2012). EJU: Match analysis process. http://www.eju.net/news/?mode=showNewsItem&id=1823
29. Franchini, E., Sterkowicz, S., Meira Jr, C. M., Ferreira Gomes, F. R., & Tani, G. (2008). Technical variation in a sample of high level judo players'. Perceptual and Motor Skills (106), 859-869.
30. Heinish, H.-D., & Oswald, R. (2007, September). Features of the technical tactical performance capacity of the world’s top judoka. Annals of the 5th International Judo Federation World Research Symposium. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
31. Hoare, S. (2007, July). Historical development of judo. European Judo Union Foundation Degree Course (p. 15). Bath: Bath University.
32. Hughes, M., & Bartlett, R. (2004). The use of performance indicators in performance analysis. In M. Hughes, & I. Franks (Eds.), Notational Analysis of Sport, (2nd ed., pp. 165-187). New-york: Routledge Taylor & Francis group.
33. Inman, R. (2009). 40 Years of judo waza. British Judo Association National Technical Conference.
34. International Judo Federation. (2010). Refereeing new rules. Available at www.intjudo.eu
35. International Judo Federation. (2013). Refereeing new rules. Available at www.intjudo.eu
36. Jagiełło , W., Dornowski , M., & Wolska, B. (2014). Basic technical skills (throws) in 17-19-year-old. Physical education of students, 18(6), 77-80.
37. Keppel, G. (1991). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hal.
38. Kons, R. L., Da Silva Júnior, J. N., Fischer, G., & Detanico, D. (2018). Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016: A technical-tactical analysis of judo matches. Kinesiology, 50(2), 204-210.
39. Krabben, K., Orth, D., & Van der Kamp, J. (2019). Combat as an interpersonal synergy: An ecological dynamics approach to combat sports. Sports Medicine (49), 1825-1836.
40. Krstulovic, S. (2012). Predictors of judo performance in male athletes. I. Rado (Ed.) Homo Sporticus, 14(2), 5-10.
41. Krumer, A. (2017). On winning probabilities weight categories, and home advantage in professional judo. Journal of Sports Economics, 18(1), 77-96.
42. Lascau, F., & Rosu, D. (2013). Study regarding the prediction of medal winning in Olympic Games judo competitions. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 386-390.
43. Lech, G., Jaworski, J., & Krawczyk, R. (2007). The level of motor coordination abilities and the course of fights as well as the level of achievements by senior judoists. Antropomotoryka, 17(40), 63-71.
44. Loizon, D., Margnes , E., & Terrisse, A. (2004). Analysis of teaching practices: the practices declared by judo teacher. eJRIEPS (5), 63-86.
45. Macquet, A. C., & Fleurance, P. (2006). Theoretical models to study the activity of the sports expert. Movement & Sport Sciences, 2(58), 9-42.
46. Marques Guilheiro, L., & Franchini, E. (2017). Be seeded or not be seeded? A study with Olympic judo athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 13(2), 148-152.
47. Martinez Moya, P., & Terry Tartabull, J. (2003, September). Application of the criteria of differentiation and tactical evaluation in judo. Revista Digital (64), 8.
48. Miarka, B., Brito, C. J., Amtmann, J., Córdova, C., dal Bello, F., & Camey, S. (2018). Suggestions for judo training with pacing strategy and decision making by judo Championship phases. Journal of Human Kinetics volume, 64, 219-232.
49. McCann, S. (2008). At the Olympics, everything is a performance issue. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(3), 267-276.
50. Miller, G. A., Collins, N. A., Stewart, M. J., & Challis, D. G. (2015). Throwing Technique and Efficiency in the 2013 British Judo Championships. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport (15), 53-68.
51. Molina , J. P., & Villamon, M. (2000). Strategic-tactical principles of combat sports: the example of judo. In A. Terrisse (Ed.), Research in combat sports and martial arts. State of the art (pp. 175-184). Paris: Revue EPS.
52. Mota Barreto, L. B., Dal Bello, F., Araujo, R. A., Brito, C. J., Fernandes, J. R., & Miarka, B. (2019). Judo approach and handgrip analysis: determining aspects of world circuit high performance. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(Supplement issue 2, article 61), 413-149.
53. Nadeau, L., & Martel, D. (2006). Coaches' use of a tool to measure performance in real ice hockey game situations. eJRIEPS (9), 44-50.
54. Osipov, A., Kudryavtsev, M., Struchkov, V., Kuzmin, V., Bliznevsky, A., & Plotnikova, I. (2016). Expert Analysis of the competitive level of young Russian judo athletes training for conductig active attack fighting. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16(4), 1153-1158.
55. Paillard, T. (2010). Judo sport performance factors. In T. Paillard (Ed.), Optimization of sports performance in judo (pp. 1-16). Brussels: De Boeck University.
56. Paillard, T. (2019). Relationship between sport expertise and postural skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(Article 1428), 9.
57. Pereira Martins, F., Scarano Dualiby Pinto de Souza, L., Pinheiro de Campos, R., Bromley, S. J., Takito, M. Y., & Franchini, E. (2019). Techniques utilised at 2017 Judo World Championship and their classification: comparisons between sexes, weight categories, winners and non-winners. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 19(1), 58-65.
58. Pérez Ramirez, J. (2010). Technical analysis. Spain: Ittakus.
59. Pujszo, R., Adam , M., & Beata , W. (2017). The course of judo competition created by gold medallists of the World Championships 2015 in Astana. Archives of Budo Science of Martial Arts and Extreme sports, 13, 119-125.
60. Riguidel, J. (2010). Distance, rythm and intuition. Availabale at http://www.stagejudomontpellier.com/recherche/riguidel/articles/maai.htm
61. Robles Rodríguez, A., Abad Robles, M., Robles Rodríguez, J., & Giménez Fuentes-Guerra, F. (2019). Factors that affect the sport development of Olympic judokas. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 19(74), 259-276. http://doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2019.74.006
62. Roux, P. (2019). The attack system. Description and analysis before exceeding. Esprit du judo (78), 24-25.
63. Sacripanti, A. (2019, June). The increasing importance of Ashi Waza, in high level competition. (Their Biomechanics, and small changes in the form). In H. Sertić, S. Čorak, & I. Segedi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th European Judo Science & Resaerch Symposium: Applicable research in judo, (pp. 66-75). Poreč, Croatia.
64. Sacripanti, A. (1987). Biomechanical classification of judo throwing techniques (Nage Waza). 5th International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sport , (pp. 181-194). Greece: Athens. https://ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de/cpa/article/view/2314/2187
65. Santos, L., Fernández-Río, J., Almansba, R., Sterkowicz, S., & Callan, M. (2015). Perceptions of Top-Level Judo Coaches on Training and Performance. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 10(1), 145-158.
66. Scurati, R., Michielon, G., Roione, G., Longo, S., & Invernizzi, P. (2006, July). Analysis of the temporal and the technical structures employed in judo combat by young athletes at regional and national level. 11th Annual congress of the European college of sport science. Lausanne.
67. Segedi, I., & Sertić , H. (2014). Classification of judo throwing techniques according to their importance in judo match. Kinesiology, 46(Supplement 1), 107-112.
68. Sertić , H., Segedi , I., & Sterkowicz , S. (2007, September). Difference of the groups of throws used by men and women in different weight categories during the European junior judo Championships 2005. Annals of the 5th International Judo Federation World Research Symposium. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
69. Sertić, H., & Segedi, I. (2012). Structure of importance of techniques of throws in different age groups in men judo. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 3(2), 59-62.
70. Stanković, N., Cuk, S., Milosevic, N., & Stamenkovic, S. (2015). The course of the judo fight at the 2011 World Championship. Physical Education and Sport, 13(1), 107-113.
71. Tabakov, S. (2009). Index analysis of technical-tactical preparedness of Olympic Games 2008 judo champions (men). Exercise and Quality of Life, 1(1), 5-14.
72. Takahashi, M., & al. (2005). Develop effective judo strategies and tactics. Mastering judo. Champaign, USA: Human Kinetics.
73. Weers, G. (1997). Skill range of the elite judo competitor. Available at http://judoinfo.com/weers1.htm
74. Yaneva, A. G., & Lukanova, V. (2019). Examining the opinion of experts in judo on the need for a training methodology for children aged 7 to 10. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 17(Suppl.1), 731-735